When did extraterritoriality end in China?

Treaty of nanking pdf

Cartoon from 1899 depicting Uncle Sam, allegorical representation of the United States, standing on a large map of China being cut up by Germany, Italy, England, Russia and France (Austria is at the bottom of the sharpening scissors); Uncle Sam clings to the “Trade Treaty with China” and says: “Gentlemen, you can cut up this map as much as you like, but remember I am here to stay and you cannot divide me into spheres of influence.”  ! “

The term emerged in 1915, in the atmosphere of rising Chinese nationalism opposing the Twenty-One Demands made by the Japanese Government and its acceptance by Yuan Shikai, with the Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist Party subsequently popularizing the characterization.

The beginning of the century of humiliation dates back to the mid-nineteenth century, on the eve of the First Opium War[3] amidst widespread opium addiction and the political crumbling of the Qing Empire that followed.[4] The main events cited as part of the century of humiliation are the following.

Major events cited as part of the Century of Humiliation include the defeat in the First Opium War (1839-1842) to the United Kingdom, the unequal treaties, the Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864), the defeat in the Second Opium War (1856-1860) with the sacking of the Old Summer Palace by British and French forces, the Franco-Chinese War (1884-1885), the defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) by Japan, the Boxer Uprising and its subsequent suppression by an international military coalition (1899-1901),[5] the Twenty-One Demands of Japan (1915), the Japanese invasion of Manchuria (1931-1932) and the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945).

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Which powers intervened in the unequal treaties with China?

The history of the aggression of American imperialism against China, from 1840, when it aided the British in the Opium War, to the moment when it was thrown out of China by the Chinese people, should be written in a clear and concise manual for the education of Chinese youth.

were one of the first countries to force China to grant extraterritoriality[1]; proof of which is the Treaty of Wangsia[2] of 1844, the first treaty signed between China and the U.S., spoken of in the White Paper.

In this same Treaty, the USA, in addition to imposing on China clauses such as the one stipulating the opening of five ports to trade, forced it to accept the activity of American missionaries.

For a very long period, US imperialism attached more importance than other imperialist countries to activities in the sphere of spiritual aggression, extending them from religious to “philanthropic” and cultural works.

St. John’s University, University of Nanking, Soochow University, Hangchow Christian College, Hsiangya Medical School, West China Union University and Lingnan University were established by Americans[4].

How China fell prey to imperialism

Treaty ports were abolished in Japan in 1899 as a result of that country’s rapid industrialization and growing military power. Most imperialist powers, however, refused to give up their treaty port rights in China and other Asian countries until the end of World War II.

The arrival of foreign nations in China in the period 1840-1940 marks a low point in Chinese power. Foreigners set about founding their own communities within China, subject to their own laws and customs, living as if they were still at home. There was a time when almost every major city in China had such a community. The early Chinese perspective was of foreign tribes of barbarians endlessly fighting each other, perhaps expected to attack each other rather than the Chinese, as happened in WWI.

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They were usually called “treaty ports,” but there were cities that were not ports and some were not signed on to a treaty. Where the city had an exclusive area reserved for foreigners, this was called an ‘enclave’ but in cities with fewer foreigners they lived among the local Chinese. They are also called ‘concessions’, suggesting that they were given by agreement, again this was not always the case. A ‘concession’ was a foreign lease where land could not be sublet to Chinese and only selected Chinese were allowed to enter. Shanghai is a classic example, it became a treaty port in 1842 in the Sino-British Treaty of Nanjing, which ended the Opium Wars. There were also cities such as Nanning, Guangxi. China was surrendered without a treaty, as China anticipated that it would soon be forced to do so and could avoid a hostile takeover by voluntarily giving up its own terms.

Unequal treaties china

Following China’s defeat in the war, representatives of the British Empire and Qing China negotiated the terms of the treaty aboard the British warship HMS Cornwallis in Nanking waters. On August 29, 1842, British representative Sir Henry Pottinger and Qing representatives Prince Yijing, Keying, Ilibu and Niujian signed the treaty consisting of thirteen articles which were ratified by both Queen Victoria and Emperor Daoguang ten months later.

The main interest of the treaty was to change the form of foreign trade that had persisted since 1760. The treaty abolished the thirteen factories’ monopoly on foreign trade in Canton (Article V) and in exchange five ports were to be opened: those of Canton, Amoy, Foochow, Ningbo and Shanghai, where the British could trade freely. The British Empire would also acquire the right to send consuls to these open ports (Treaty Ports), which gave them the right to communicate directly with the local Chinese authorities (Article II). It was also stipulated that trade in these ports would be subject to fixed tariffs to be agreed between the British and the Qing Government (Article X). The Treaty of Nanking was the first of a series of treaties during the 19th century between China and European nations known as the “Unequal Treaties”.

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